They were smaller without a heavy main gun, reduced protection but similar speed to the larger and more expensive previous British armoured cruisers. At the start of the Second World War, the United Kingdom already possessed two armoured divisions; a further nine would be raised by the British Army during the war, of which only two would not see service. These studies were not treaty compliant. Claes Horn; Claes Uggla; Jacob Bagge; Psilander; Örnen; Ukraine "Cruisers of the Royal and Common Wealth Navies" by Douglas Morris, c. 1987, will give good individual ship histories for all British cruisers from 1879 to the 1960s. The last British Armoured cruisers. The last class of 'conventional' British armoured cruiser before construction was switched to battlecruisers. She is a good illustration of the British cruiser design philosophy in practice. Cruiser Tank Mk I (A9) What became known as the A9 cruiser tank Mk I was originally conceived as a medium tank to replace the Vickers A6 medium tanks Mks I and II. The only British armoured cruisers with three funnels. The introduction of Krupp armour enabled this class to re-introduce side armour in the British cruisers, making them the first modern Armoured Cruisers in the British navy. There are no longer any cruisers in the Royal Navy. Thus, the first class cruisers built between the Orlando class (1886) and the Cressy class (1897) were, strictly speaking, protected cruisers as they lacked an armoured belt. The armored cruiser was developed in the 1870s as an attempt to combine the virtues of the armored ironclad warship and the fast and long-ranged, but unarmored, cruisers of the time. Contact Me. Such a ship was desirable to protect overseas trade and, especially for the French and British, to police their vast overseas empires. Älvsnabben (1943) Clas Fleming; Torpedo cruisers. The advent of better machinery and larger, faster destroyers and light cruisers effectively made them obsolete. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cruiser_classes_of_the_Royal_Navy&oldid=995026004, Military units and formations of the United Kingdom, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 20:26. The armoured cruiser played a key role in the Battle of Coronel, fought between the British Royal Navy and Germany's Imperial Navy off the coast of Chile. The third class cruisers carried 4in guns and were generally smaller ships. From victory to defeat in five weeks At the same time it was recognized that there was at least a need for a squadron of efficient armored cruisers for overseas service. Ok, what was the best Armored Cruiser of them all? This meant that the arrangement of coal bunkers in the hull could no longer be relied upon as protection and the adoption of destroyer-type machinery resulted in a higher speed. These designs described as armoured cruisers. Arbuthnot had four armored cruisers: his flagship Defence, plus Warrior, Duke of Edinburgh and Black Prince. Just compare the last British armoured cruisers (Minotaur-class) with the first battlecruisers (Invincible-class). This makes the Arethusas the first "true example" of the warship that came to be recognised as the light cruiser. The cruisers were part of the Southern Force (Rear-Admiral Arthur Christian) composed of the flagship Euryalus, the light cruiser Amethyst and the 7th Cruiser Squadron (7th CS, also known as Cruiser Squadron C, Rear-Admiral H. H. Campbell, nicknamed the live-bait squadron), comprising the Cressy-class armoured cruisers HMS Bacchante, Aboukir, Hogue, Cressy and Euryalus, the 1st and 3rd Destroyer … - Contact Us - Search - Recent - About Us -  Subscribe in a reader - Join our Google Group The “heavy” ones has been armoured cruisers last dating back from 1906 and battle cruisers which were assimilated to the battleship class. In the Royal Navy this classification was not actually used, the term first class cruiser being used instead for both armoured cruisers and large protected cruisers. In 1888 a three class system had been introduced, originally based on largely on size. * HMS Medusa was the only survivor of this class, acting as a calibrating vessel at Bantry during the war. They joined up with the rest of the Grand Fleet heading south from Scapa Flow the next day and the 1st Cruiser Squadron took up its scouting position on the fleet’s right wing. The ships below are all protected cruisers, but were rated as second and third class cruisers by the Royal Navy. Gotland (1933) - converted to an anti-aircraft cruiser - BU 1963; Light cruisers. The earlier Hawkins class were therefore retrospectively classified as such, although they had been initially built as "improved light cruisers". Edgar Class. Lieutenant Weddigen commanding submarine U-9 sinks the three British armored cruisers Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy in a single day. Armoured cruiser. The Town class of 1910 were rated as second-class protected cruisers, but were effectively light armoured cruisers with mixed coal and oil firing. The distinguishing features of these ships were the adoption of the all big-gun armament of the Dreadnaught,  and the choice of the 12 inch battleship gun as the main armament. The final two ships were completed after the British big-gun, turbine powered “Invincible” class battle cruisers. The armored cruiser was developed in the 1870s as an attempt to combine the virtues of the armored ironclad warship and the fast and long-ranged, but unarmored, cruisersof the time. Usually the best one of each navy would be the last one each navy built. The first class cruiser was succeeded by the Battlecruiser in the Royal Navy. They were soon superseded by the increasingly seaworthy destroyers whose faster speed made them much better and rather less expensive scouts. The concern within higher naval circles was that without ships that could fulfill these requirements and incorporate new technology, their fleet would become obsolete and ineffective shoul… While the Bristol and Weymouth class cruisers only carried deck armour, the Chatham class cruisers of 1911-1916 carried a belt of armour on the waterline, a feature on following classes. Fylgia (1905) - Sold for BU 1957; Seaplane cruiser. The "large light cruisers" were a pet project of Admiral Fisher to operate in shallow Baltic Sea waters and they are often classed as a form of battlecruiser. The surviving second and third class cruisers in 1914 were distinguished mainly by their largest guns. German Light Cruisers. In the London Naval Treaty of 1930, light cruisers were officially defined as cruisers having guns of 6.1 inches (155 mm) calibre or less, with a displacement not exceeding 10,000 tons. Protected cruiserswere so-called because their vital machinery spaces were protected by an armoured deck and the arrangement of coal bunkers. They played an important part in the battles in France in 1940 and North Africa in 1941. The heavy cruiser was defined in the London Naval Treaty of 1930 as a cruiser with a main gun calibre not exceeding 8 inches. With such a mindset, three British armoured light cruisers, HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue, and HMS Cressy, were sailing almost straight abreast, two miles from each … Tre Kronor class converted to anti-aircraft cruisers. Protected cruisers were so-called because their vital machinery spaces were protected by an armoured deck and the arrangement of coal bunkers. This list covers the fifty classes of cruisers to see active service during the First World War. Although at times called "through deck cruisers", the Invincible class of the 1980s were small aircraft carriers. These ships saw the older triple expansion engines replaced by turbines and coal power replaced by a mix of coal and oil. They are generally known as light cruisers. It was the British themselves, without any pressure from the other powers, who volunteered to convert them to aircraft carrier’s. Monmouth Class Armoured Cruiser HMS Monmouth, Bedford, Donegal, Berwick, Kent, Cumberland, Cornwall, Essex, Suffolk, Lancaster Laid down 1899-1901, completed 1903-1904. These large armoured cruisers then evolved into the battlecruiser, with the appearance of the Invincible class (1907-1909), although the term itself was not adopted until 1912. While the Bristol and Weymouth class cruisers only carried deck armour, the Chatham class cruisers of 1911-1916 carried a belt of armour on the waterline, a feature on following classes. While the lack of high-explosive shells greatly reduces their versatility against more heavily armored ships or well-… The second class cruiser went out of fashion after the Highflyer class of 1899-1900, and no new designs appeared until the Bristol class of 1909-1910. four of the class were sheathed in copper and wood for service on tropical stations which added 350 tons to the ships and reduced top speed by 0.5 knot as well as reducing endurance. First, these new cruisers were ships of the Arethusa class, eight vessels whose last was completed in March 1915. They were gradually scrapped in the 1920s and 1930s. By the fall of 1942, the first British M4 Shermans arrived en masse through Alexandria harbor, but the bulk of VIIIth forces still comprised M3 Grants, M3 Stuarts, Crusaders, Cruiser III-IVs, Matildas and Valentines. On September 22, 1914, Captain Weddigen commanding the submarine U-9, sank three British cruisers, Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy, with a loss of 62 officers and 1,397 British sailors. The first class cruisers still in use in 1914 were generally over 10,000 tonnes, and most carried two 9.2in guns and a large number of 6in or 7.5in guns. This period saw a change in the classification of cruisers. The County and York classes were also built as light cruisers with most of them in service at the time of the Treaty of London, after which they were also redesignated heavy cruisers. Devonshire Class Armoured Cruiser HMS Devonshire, Antrim, Argyll, Carnarvon, Hampshire, Roxburgh Laid down 1902, completed 1905. The A9 and A10 were the first of the British Cruiser tanks. The light armoured cruiser – light cruiser – succeeded the protected cruiser; improvements in machinery and armour rendering the latter obsolete. HMS Defence explodes (right), by Claus Bergen. The major contendors, as I would call them, would be the USN Tennessee class (Memphis class), the British Minotaur class, the German Blucher class, and the Italian San Girogio class, plus a few others. The ships below are all protected cruisers, but were rated as second and third class cruisers by the Royal Navy. Development work had started in 1934 under the direction of Sir John Carden of Vickers-Armstrongs, with a view to coming up with a cheaper and more effective design. The scout class cruisers were very lightly built, and carried even lighter guns than the third class cruisers. World War 1 Service: Cressy The Toyota Land Cruiser (TLC) 200 Series from The Armored Group, LLC, is the most popular armored SUV in the world, and a staple vehicle for many NGO’s, government agencies, security company fleets, business professionals and families. According to the Naval Law of 1900 and subsequent amendments, the strength of the German Imperial Navy was fixed at 38 battleships, 20 armored cruisers, 38 small cruisers and 144 torpedo boats. This is a list of cruisers of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom from 1877 (when the category was created by amalgamating the two previous categories of frigate and corvette) until the last cruiser was decommissioned more than a century later. Next studies compared 8in and 9.2in guns but very high speed and protection, which ended up as a 9in belt, 3.5in decks, 9 by 8in guns, 182,000shp, 21,750 tons, 5.5 million. These ships were rather light in the standards of the time. The British could have kept these ships as 15-inch gun-armed light cruisers without affecting the capital ship tonnage allocated to them, just as they kept their 15-inch gun armed monitors. Armoured cruisers were protected by a belt of side armour and an armoured deck. The ships were also referred to as County-class cruisers as they carried the names of British counties. Each Regiment had a mix of the early cruiser designs produced up to that point, around 80 total, and many Vickers light tanks to make up the numbers. As with the light cruisers, th… Armoured Cruisers. The new heavy cruiser would displace 15,000 tons, with greatly improved subdivision over previous British cruisers and a main armament of nine 8-inch (203mm) guns. As the last British battlecruisers, the three Minotaurs marked an additional milestone towards an overpowering artillery, to the detriment of protection, with tonnage and greater dimensions. With the advent of turbine machinery, oil firing and better armour plate the protected cruise… The author describes all the classes of ships from the very early sailing cruisers to the last Armoured cruisers of 1905,each class is dealt with in much the same manner, design features,specifications,excellent diagrams and photographs.Each section is … The second class cruisers all carried at least two 6in guns (except for the wartime Birkenhead class, with ten 5.5in guns). They were the only British cruisers with twin 9.2 inch gun turrets. Help - F.A.Q. By the turn of the century, the German Navy proved a greater challenge to British naval supremacy than France and Russia. HMS Hood is included in the list to illustrate the vast size of the last general of battlecruisers, despite not being completed until after the war. She would be armored against 8-inch shellfire, with much better protection than the old County class “Treaty” cruisers. Cruisers Into Battle About 24 Cruiser A9’s equipped the two brigades of 1st Armoured Division when they were sent to France as part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in May 1940. British cruisers in World of Warships share many similarities with American and German cruisers, with fast-firing guns housed in quick-turning turrets; however, they fire only armor-piercing rounds. The Arethusa class of 1913 were the first oil-only fired class. The third class cruiser was not expected to operate with the fleet, was substantially smaller than the second class and lacked the watertight double-bottom of the latter. - Cookies. The number of ships given is the number of ships active during the war, not the total number of ships in the class. Crew 760. The story progresses with the last armored cruisers, which were succeeded by the first battlecruisers (originally called armored cruisers), and with the last Third Class Cruisers (Topaze class), all conceived before 1906. I’m surprised by how few people recognize this. With the advent of turbine machinery, oil firing and better armour plate the protected cruiser became obsolete and was succeeded by the light cruiser. Tre Kronor (1944) Göta Lejon (1945) Mine cruiser. These ships varied in size from the massive battlecruisers developed after 1906, which at over 30,000 tonnes were essentially light battleships, down to the tiny 2,000 tonne scout cruisers. Armor PhotoHistory APH #5 British Cruiser Tanks A9 & A10 by Peter Brown. Exeter was completed in 1931. Essentially there were two distinct groups – the eight vessels all ordered under the 1903 Programme, and the seven later vessels ordered under the 1907-1910 Programmes. Minotaur Class. In theory the armored cruiser was to be capable of standing in the line of battle, scouting for the battle fleet and showing the flag in distant waters like traditional cruisers. Like the Drake class they were fitted with new propellers soon into their service which significantly improved speed. Originally the class had very short funnels but these were raised around 1909-1910. The navies of the world approached the armament of armored cruisers in a number of different ways. Site Search. But the program was confused by the appearance of the British Dreadnought. These "minelaying cruisers" were the only purpose-built oceangoing minelayers of the Royal Navy. Readers who would like more detailed studies of British armored cruisers should read "Warrior to Dreadnought" by David Brown, c. 1997. The culmination of the British drive for as many armored cruisers as possible occurred in 1905 when production began on some of the most powerful armored cruisers ever constructed: the Minotaur-class. The class also were the first British ships to use wood that had been treated to be fire proof. The Monmouth class was a ten-ship class of 10,000-ton armoured cruisers built around 1901 to 1903 for the Royal Navy and designed specifically for commerce protection. The scout cruiser was a smaller, faster, more lightly armed and armoured cruiser than the protected cruiser, intended for fleet scouting duties and acting as a flotilla leader. Such a ship was desirable to protect overseas trade and, especially for the … It also discusses their deployments in the Great War of 1914 - 1918 (World War I). The scout class cruisers were very lightly built, and carried even lighter guns than the third class cruisers. The last British heavy cruiser to be built was the famous Exeter, which battled the German "pocket battleship" Graf Spee in the South Atlantic, and was later sunk by Japanese cruisers and destroyers in the Java Sea. British Light Cruisers. 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